Saturday, January 26, 2019
Jesus the Rejected
(The following questions have been developed as a way of getting at some fundamental concerns of Law and Gospel preachers, i.e. how is the Word functioning? These questions should be used in conjunction with other fine sets of questions which unearth other issues for the preacher. To learn more about Law and Gospel preaching, see my brief guide, Afflicting the Comfortable, Comforting the Afflicted, available from wipfandstock.com or amazon.)
1. How does the Word function in the text? Jesus, the Word made flesh, is laying down the Law here. He is pulling no punches. Though what he has proclaimed from the prophet Isaiah in the verses prior to this is a gospel word, here he makes it very clear that his listeners do not understand or embrace this message, and furthermore, they fail to understand who he is.
2. How is the Word not functioning in the text? A gospel word is hard to find in this passage. One might well see a foreshadowing of the Cross here, so perhaps we could say that his willingness to go the way of the Cross for the sins of the world is already on display here, and that is a gospel word. Yet, these verses primarily function to condemn his listeners.
3. With whom are you identifying in the text? It is so tempting to identify with Jesus in this text. We might want to recall when we have been the target of the wrath of the unrighteous. That would be a mistake. We need to step into the shoes of those who reject this word and own our own rage at God's judgment. If we are honest we know that God's word of judgment often meets resistance in us; we can only pray that it does not lead us to reject Jesus entirely.
4. What, if any, call to obedience is there in this text? This text is really a call to repentance, which of course, is the function of any law text. The call to obedience is something different. The call to obedience is the text functioning to invite us to live differently in response to God's work in Christ. That function is not present here. A good example of the call to obedience is the second lesson appointed for this day - St. Paul's call to love in I Corinthians 13.
5. What Law/Gospel couplet is suggested by this text? Absent the presence of any gospel word in this text, we shall have to imagine couplets based on the words of law here. Some possibilities are: judged/forgiven; starving/fed; leprous/cleansed.
6. Exegetical work: There is an interesting debate amongst scholars as to what Luke's goal is in bringing to light the reaction of Jesus' hometown folks to his first sermon. Fred Craddock, in his commentary, says that "Luke's point throughout Luke-Acts is that Israel should have understood and embraced Jesus' message." And "Jesus does not go elsewhere because he is rejected; he is rejected because he goes elsewhere." (Luke, Interpretations series, p. 63-64) Amy-Jill Levine and Ben Witherington III battle it out in their joint commentary on this passage. (The Gospel of Luke, New Cambridge Bible Commentary). Levine says that "the problem is not Jesus' extension of grace; the problem is that Jesus denies the people of Nazareth what their own history promises." (p.122) Witherington, on the other hand, "highlights Luke's presentation of successful missions in the synagogues in Acts on multiple occasions from Paul's preaching,.. and so he finds Luke's theology to be one of inclusion in Christ - Jews and gentiles united in Christ." (Ibid.) Finally, these two scholars agree "that stereotypes of early Judaism as a graceless religion or one opposed to inclusion of gentiles in contrast to the universality of the Jesus movement do no justice to early Judaism." (p. 123)
7. How does the Crossings Community model work with this text? Nathan Hall, in his analysis, picks up on the phrase, "And [they] were amazed at the gracious words that came from his mouth." Hall notes that "grace" is hidden in this phrase and he skillfully weaves that into his entire analysis. As he says, the people will find out that Jesus' words contain more grace than they ever imagined. Go to crossings.org/text-study for the whole analysis.
Blessings on your proclamation!